Adenoviruses are widespread throughout all avian species. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies in healthy poultry and viruses have been isolated from normal birds. Despite their widespread distribution most adenoviruses cause no or only mild disease however some are associated with specific clinical conditions IBH outbreaks are encountered primarily in meat type chickens most commonly at the age of 3 – 8 weeks IBH often occurs as a secondary infection to immunodeficiency resulting from other diseases (IBD). On the background of dystrophic liver changes, hemorrhages of various intensity and size are outlines, thus creating a variety of liver lesions. The viral inclusion body hepatitis (IBD) is an avian adenovirus infection characterized by hemorrhages and dystrophic neurobiotic changes in the liver and kidney accompanied by intranuclear inclusion bodies. A characteristic macroscopic lesion is the enlarged, dystrophic liver with yellowish color and crumbly texture IBH is charaterised by acute mortality, often with severe anaemia, caused by an adenovirus a number of different serotypes have been isolated from disease outbreaks but they may also be isolated from healthy chickens this is also known as Litchi disease the virus is generally resistant to disinfectionts (ether, chloroform ph) and high temperatures.

Throught IBH outbreaks several serotypes from the 12 known avian adenoviruses (AAVS) of group are the sick chickens carry the virus in their excreta, kidneys, tracheal and nasal mucosa. The virus is resistant to many environmental factors and could be easily transmitted by a mechanical route. The transmission of adenoviruses is realized vertically by breeder eggs and horizontally, via excreta (mainly faces). In a number of cases the dominating lesion is the massive mouled or striated haemorrhages of the liver.

IBH is characterized by a sudden onset and a sharply increased death rate that reaches peak values by the 3rd and 4th day and returns back within the normal range by the 6th – 7th day. The total death rate is usually under 10% but sometimes could attain 30% more rarely macro scopically visible necrotic foci could be detected in the liver.


  • Watery dropping
  • Depression
  • Inappetance
  • Ruffled feathers
  • Pallor of comb and wattles
  • Kidneys are enlarged, pale and mottled with multiple hemorrhages
  • Lost body weight
  • Diarrhea
  • Anorexia
  • Anemia and dehydration may develop secondary to hemorrhagic enteritis
  • Sometimes the skin is icteric
  • Often ecchymoses and striated haemorrhages skeletal muscles are observed.


This is particularly important in view of the fact that poultry farming has become an important livestock industry in India

Post mortem lesions:-

  • Liver swollen, yellow, mottled with petechlae and. Ecchymoses
  • Kidneys and bonemarrowpale
  • Blood thin
  • Bursa and spleen small


  • Molpro 200gm/5000 birds in first drinking water
  • Dilacox 2ml/ Ltr of water
  • Anytox 2ml/ Ltr of water
  • Adimmone 3ml/ Ltr of water
  • ADS Plus 1ml/ Ltr of water


  • Cenrantive and good sanitary precautions, prevention of immunosuppression. Adenovirus infection may infect other organs causing a splenits inclusion body hepatitis, bronchitis, pulmonary congestion ventriculitis, oedema depending on the species of bird infected.

For more details:

Categories: Articles

Write a Comment

Your e-mail address will not be published.
Required fields are marked*