Lameness in Poultry in Brooding & Growing phase (Specially Males)?

Now a days Main focus to the incidence of lameness being higher in male birds in the brooding phase.Lameness in adults can be divided into three distinct groups:Infectious arthritis of which Erysipelas and Mycoplasma hyosynoviae are the most common causes.Septic laminitis – bush foot due to bacterial infection.Physical lameness associated with deformed or damaged cartilage (variably termed osteochondrosis, osteochondritis, or degenerative joint disease (DJD)) and bony pathology leading to weakness and fracture (osteomalacia). In general Dietary or riboflavin deficiency that affects bone development. Genetically caused bone malformations. Management issues: Litter conditions.Vitamin B deficiency is associated with leg abnormalities and lameness in broilers. Excessive dietary protein increases the metabolic requirement for vitamin B6, which leads to stunted longitudinal bone growth.At an early age, the birds start to limp or drag their body on the floor, one of the reasons attributed to this could be transportation stress.The birds may show postural defects, such as bowed legs or bent hocks. The lesions are evident in the hock region; the joint appears swollen and red. On closer examination, swelling in the plantar regions of the bird’s feet can also be noticed.This are mostly with calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D3 deficiencies, or faulty brooding. Staphylococcus is a potential pathogen in broiler breeders” that causes lameness. Staphylococci are opportunistic bacteria that invade through breaks in the skin surface (beak, and comb trimming). As a management practice,# Why is the incidence of lameness higher in male birds?It can be caused by trauma, congenital or acquired disorders, infection, metabolic disorders, or nervous and circulatory system disease. Lameness is not a disease per se but a clinical sign. It is a manifestation of pain, mechanical restrictions causing alteration of stance or gait, or neuromuscular disease.The incidence is usually high when the feed is changed from chick mash to grower mash. This happens in growers, but by 10-12 weeks its incidence gradually decrease.The commonly known causes are pecking, low fibre, excess pressure or irritation in the intestine, necrotic enteritis, or subclinical coccidiosis. We should focus on some others such as bacterial (E coli, Clostridium) and worm infestation, Coccidia, Eimeria necatrix. Hence, he recommended the use of anti-coccidial drugs around 28 days of age.My suggestions ,dark out of grower sheds; monitoring cumulative feed consumption for a specific duration; usage of anti-coccidials is essential (even in caged birds there are incidences of coccidiosis); he strictly suggested avoiding the use of antibiotics, and recommended the use of natural plant extracts and probiotics.Provide additional supplements of manganese (Mn) in order to ensure total intake of 60 mg/kg Feed in a balanced diet.